Utilizing Forces to Avoid Threats in Maintaining Peru's Sovereignty

The Republic of Peru is a country in the western part of South America. Peru is a country rich in anthropological culture, and became independent from the Spaniards on July 28, 1821 thanks to an alliance between the Argentinian armies and Neogranedine Simon Bolivar. Has geographical boundaries with countries such as Ekoador and Colombia in the north, in the east the conflict with Brazil, in the west it is bordered by the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, while in the southeast it is bordered by Bolivia and the south of the continent with Chile and the Pacific ocean. It has a coastline with a length of 2,254 km and has several mountains, one of which is the Ades Mountains which extends from south to north, where almost one third of its entire area is mountains. By having natural geography, Peru can use it as a defense tool that is strong enough in the event of aggression from other countries.

Peru has had conflicts with ecoadors in the past. In 1995, there was a major conflict between two countries in South America aimed at seizing control of remote areas around the Amazon River. This war involved two democratic countries, the Republic of Peru and the Republic of Ecuador, which had previously experienced periods of conflict in 1941 and 1981 known as the Paquisha War. Historically, the conflict between the two countries started with the absence of clear legal rights over areas in the Amazon basin, which could then be claimed by independent countries based on an expedition in 1539.

tilizing Forces to Avoid Threats in Maintaining Peru's Sovereignty


Internal and external threats face the Peruvian state.

The threat that is currently being faced by the Peruvian people, especially the indigenous people, is that the main language, which is the language of their ancestors, has gradually been abandoned by the younger generation, so this is very unfortunate for some parents who see this condition as very contrary to their nationalist spirit; they really want that the unifying language, which is the original language, be maintained and not Spanish. According to a resident named Garcia, he should be able to speak Taushiro but hasn't been able to do so. While Andrade should be able to speak Resigaro fluently, he cannot speak either of these two languages, which are among the 17 languages in Peru that will become extinct. Modern life has swept through Peru, including the supposedly isolated Amazon region. The lifestyle of the local people has changed. Garcia is the last descendant of the Taushiro, a group of local indigenous people who perished from malaria and other diseases due to the toxic rubber and oil waste flowing in their rivers.

If the government does not anticipate this, it will become an impediment and a threat to the Peruvian nation's resilience, because the nation's wealth, which is an ancestral heritage, must be preserved for survival, particularly for the younger generation who will carry on the nation's life.

Meanwhile, external threats that need to be watched out for are anticipating conflicts with other countries. This needs to be anticipated because the Peruvian nation has had a conflict with Ecuador. This war involved two democratic countries, which had previously experienced periods of conflict in 1941 and 1981 known as the Paquisha War (Paquisha War). Historically, the conflict between the two countries began with the lack of clear legal rights to areas in the Amazon basin which could then be claimed by independent countries based on an expedition in 1539. The discovery of the Amazon River began with an official expedition organized by Francisco Pizarro, a Governor of Peru, They started the journey from Cuzco, Peru's capital at the time, led directly by his brother Gonzalo Pizarro, and officially discovered the Amazon river on February 12, 1542. However, because the area that is currently part of Ecuador was the administrative territory of Peru until 1739, recognition for the area is still in doubt (Lepruwash, 1995). Because Peru has experienced war, it is necessary to have strength that must be built in order to guard against the exhaustion of the country. It is possible that aggression from other countries may occur in the years to come; this can be seen from the land borders with various countries, so the strength of the armed forces is needed to always maintain the sovereignty of the country. In order for the potential of national resources to be used optimally, the Armed Forces' assets must have optimal potential.

Peruvian defense system

The occurrence of war because of the interests of a region It is not known for certain who first sparked the war; thus, a country's defense system is very important and is deployed within the country because it is to anticipate an invasion from another country. As it happened on Saturday, July 5, 1941, Ecuadorian troops invaded Peruvian territory in the province of Zarumilla, which started fighting that spread into the zone known as the Quebrada Seca (dry river). Several Ecuadorian troops from the garrison of Huaquillas, a town on the banks of the Zarumilla river, crossed to the Peruvian border post at Aguas Verdes, a town directly in front of Huaquillas, and opened fire on a Peruvian patrol. These troops were followed by about 200 Ecuadorian gunmen, who attacked a police station in Aguas Verdes, to which Peru responded by sending an infantry company into Aguas Verdes and driving the Ecuadorians back across Zarumilla. The fighting then spread across the border areas along the Zarumilla River. On July 6, Peruvian aviation carried out air raids on Ecuadorian border posts along the river. But the Ecuadorian version is that Peru took a series of incidents between the border patrols as a pretext to invade Ecuador. According to Colonel Luis A. Rodriguez, commander of the Ecuadorian troops who defended the province of El Oro during the war, the incident began on 5 July 1941 when an Ecuadorian border patrol discovered several Peruvian civilians, protected by police, clearing land on the Ecuadorian side of a river. 

Based on the existing experience, the Peruvian people must improve their defense system so that if a conflict later occurs, the defense they have is capable of protecting the country's sovereignty. At present, the Peruvian army, which has as many as 110,000 soldiers, 188,000 reserve troops, and 77,000 paramilitaries, is felt to be lacking when faced with the current situation of the country because, geographically, the Peruvians need to take advantage of existing regional conditions because their potential is already enough to maintain sovereignty. However, in reality, when facing future threats, it is necessary to have a strong and integrated defense system for the land, sea, and air forces in order to be able to detect any threats that could threaten national sovereignty in real time.

Even though the war was waged by Peru with Ecuador and won by Peru, this can illustrate the need for optimal capacity building so that Peru's military system can be more reliable in dealing with existing threats. When faced with the economy that Peru has today, it has abundant mineral resources found in mountainous areas. In fact, Peru is the main producer of silver in the world, and it is also a leader in zinc, copper, tin, and gold. Mineral exports have contributed as much as 61 percent of all export earnings. Meanwhile, coastal waters make the country an international leader in fishing, producing nearly 10 percent of the world's total fish catch and representing about 3.5 percent of the country's GDP. Peru's economy continues to grow, thanks to government programs focused on increasing growth.

The role of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Police, as well as citizens, in the national defense system

The role played by the Armed Forces and all components, including the citizens of the Peruvian nation, has been proven by their being united in expelling Ecuador, which wanted to control Peruvian territory. This is very proven and effective, in which the role of all components has a very good effect and influences the sovereignty of the nation. As it is known, in the battle between Peru and Ekoador, the Peruvian Armed Forces were able to carry out tactics well and as expected because carrying out massive attacks by utilizing and deploying the strength of the war fleet they had could be effective. The combination of ground troop maneuvers aided by air attacks was something new in the battle at that time. In addition, in this war, Peru was also able to combine the maneuverability of infantry troops and tank cavalry with the help of fire from field artillery troops. The 105 mm caliber armed cannon is designed to destroy the enemy troops' rear. 

while the front defense troops were destroyed using fire from 12 cavalry tank units. Tactical airstrikes via aerial bombers are directed at destroying strategic targets such as important cities and the port of Puerto Bolivar. To prevent rear reinforcements, Peru deployed airborne troops to destroy the enemy rear and take control of the ports. Meanwhile, Ecuador chose to use defensive tactics against Peru. Limited personnel and defense equipment have forced Ecuador to choose this tactic. Its main task is to prevent the maneuvers of the Peruvian troops from carrying out a deeper infiltration into the heart of Ecuador. However, Ecuador's tactics could not run smoothly because Peru had aircraft and paratroopers who could immediately deploy to the rear. The Ecuadorian leader's decision to stop the war and surrender was considered appropriate to avoid the total destruction that might occur if the war continued. Despite the defeat, efforts to struggle continued with sporadic guerrilla tactics to harass the Peruvian troops.

From the results of the analysis carried out against the existing threats, the Peruvian Armed Forces can optimize existing strengths and opportunities by taking advantage of the support of the people in achieving the expected goal of protecting a sovereign country from external threats.

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